Another movement that has contributed to the debate on environmental justice is the antitoxics movement, which. The basic task of this book is to explore what, exactly, is meant by justice in definitions of environmental and ecological justice. Environmental justice an overview sciencedirect topics. The challenges of environmental problems in nigeria. Chapter waste management department of environmental affairs. The paper notes that the undemocratic and corrupt nature of the nigerian state have rendered impotent the environmental policy and as a consequence, the achievement of sustainable development seems to be a mirage. Wonah department of political and administrative studies, faculty of social sciences, university of port harcourt. Oil, regulatory enforcement and environmental justice in the united states. The analysis and recommendations of this report do not necessarily reflect the views of the department of environmental affairs. The study revealed that to effectively protect the environment and sustainably develop resources, enlightened. Anjali waikar, staff attorney, nrdc environmental justice program. Ejolt environmental justice organizations, liabilities and trade is a european fp7 project that brings together a global consortium of activists and academics who research or use sustainability sciences, particularly aspects of ecological distribution. Solidarity for environmental justice in southern africa. Environmental education and sustainable development in.
The capacity of decision makers, policy makers, planners, implementers and researchers should be built to integrate it in engineering development especially in the policy on environment, and that there should be a shift from the government. The clean energy bill this seeks to create a legislative framework to promote the rapid expansion of environmental engineering and improve its efficiency in the country. It provides a critical framework for understanding environmental justice in various spatial and political. The case for a global environmental court of justice all the more challenging because there is hardly any viable means of conflict resolution. The niger delta region that hosts nigerias oil industry remains engulfed in violent conflicts of varying degrees for over 50 years. The 4year project will study and map environmental conflicts all over the world. Federal environmental protection agency fepa was established to control the nigerian environment, its resources exploitation and management. Environmental justice the concept of environmental justice first evolved among black communities in the united states, and at a very local level. In nigeria, environmental master plan of government is a most. Nigeria, with population exceeding 170 million, is one of the largest producers of solid waste in africa. From 1990 1995, nigerian soldiers, at shells request and with.
To this end, the study advocates for the collaborative efforts of international organizations, government, nongovernmental organizations, environmental. Background the term environmental justice has featured prominently in the environmental debate for the last two decades but only surfaced in legal parlance in the 1990s. Critical notes on environmental justice and sustainable. The plaintiff may not have the financial resource to procure the.
Environmental justice really reflects the fundamental reality that vulnerable. In october of 1991, the first national people of color environmental leadership summit developed a document of environmental justice principles, that have helped to describe and define the. Pdf environmental justice and sustainable development in nigeria. Pdf environmental justice and sustainable development in. Dec, 2017 the following is a transcript of the video. Not every environmental justice issue in the country is coveredthere is no dedicated discussion of land reform, for examplebut the book does include many of the key environmental justice concerns in the country. Despite a host of policies and regulations, solid waste management in the country is assuming alarming proportions with each. Environmental justice is an emerging development issue that can. Southern african activists embrace environmental justice concept. These defects are observed in the niger delta region of nigeria, where oil. In this chapter, an overview of the status of waste management. The central argument is that a theory and practice of environmental justice necessarily includes distributive. But field observation revealed that environmental degradation is growing at a rate worse than the pre fepa period.
The democracyenvironmental justice challenge in nigerias niger. Chapter waste management department of environmental. Despite south africas positive economic trajectory, unemployment remains rife amongst skilled and unskilled. Pdf improving access to environmental justice under the african. The study examined environmental justice and sustainable developmen t in nigeria.
So environmental justice movement transcends the environmental movement, being historically bonded to environmental issues, but situated within the history of movements for social justice cole e foster 2001. Environmental justice is the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws. The capacity of decision makers, policy makers, planners, implementers and researchers should be built to integrate it in engineering development especially in the policy on environment, and that there should be a. In spite of the research emphasis of environmental justice in the. Specific focus is placed on the waste management hierarchy within the context of south africas 2012 nwms, and the nem. Environmental justice, uprising, ogoni bill of right, niger delta. Hence the appeal for a global environmental law court of international jurisdiction.
Framework program for environmental protection states environmental protection agencies 1. Examining environmental policies and laws in nigeria. The phenomenon ej refers to the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, sex, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations and laws. Accordingly, the charter has both international and human rights ramifications for environmental justice in nigeria. Advancing justice, governance and law for environmental sustainability preface in facing ever increasing complexities regarding our planet, people everywhere view environmental rights, environmental law and jurisprudence and environmental governance as becoming increasingly central to resolving problems of environmental justice. Undps new strategic plan 20142017 lays out a vision for assisting developing countries with reform of legal and regulatory frameworks so that the poor, indigenous groups and local communities have secure access to natural resources including land, water and forests, and that the benefits arising from the sustainable use. Environmental justice is defined as the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income, with respect to the development, implementation and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies usepa, 2017. Judicial attitude to environmental litigation and access to. Throughout the last decade or so nigeria has supplied around 810% on average of us oil imports and within a decade, as the deepwater fields are exploited and as new reserves are discovered, nigeria could be producing annually far in excess of venezuela or kuwait. Received 11 th abstract environmental pollution and its consequences on the nigerian society are of great concern and cannot be overlooked. South africa remains at the forefront of environmental protection amongst developing countries and is committed.
The issues of global environmental injustice and human rights violations are the central focus of this article. The national oil spill detection and response agency claimed that from january 2010 to august 2015, about 294,352 barrels of oil. Pdf environmental justice in nigerias oil industry. This paper explores the idea of environmental justice in southern africa, in the context of the regions history and current challenges. To this end, the study advocates for the collaborative efforts of international organizations, government, non. Mcdonald he history of environmental policy in south africa is a cruel and perverse one. The epa definition of environmental justice is as follows. Comparative analysis of the legislation relating to oil pollution matters with a view of achieving environmental justice.
Oil pollution is a big challenge to the nigerian government. Environmental education and sustainable development in nigeria. Community protests, civil disobedience, picketing, have been. While acknowledging the varying sociopolitical and economic contexts of these conflicts, this chapter posits that. Shell lawsuit re oil pollution in nigeria business. This work is aimed at looking critically on environmental. Environmental justice in nigeria royal dutch shell plc. The impacts of oil spills and gas flaring are far reaching with severe environmental disaster. The case for a global environmental court of justice able to afford these costs and services to defend themselves and minimise damage. The legal framework regulating nigerias oil industry is one of the major drivers of disputes and the consequent violent conflicts in the oilrich niger delta region.
Pdf the study examined environmental justice and sustainable development in nigeria. Essentially, the paper finds that environmental litigations in nigeria are bedeviled by legal technicalities such that victims of environmental pollution and degradation are ultimately denied access. The nigerian constriction, for one, makes provision for environmental protection and management in sections 12, 20, 33 and 34. The paper employs expository analysis as its methodology in discussing the theme. In the niger delta region of nigeria, the costs of environmental pollution and degradation that is borne by the marginalized, oppressed and pauperized people as. In order to succeed in an action for negligence, the burden of proof lies with the plaintiff.
Environmental pollution and sustainable development in nigeria. The recommendations do not necessarily carry the full support of all the sectors represented. According to the south african environmental justice networking forum environmental justice is about social transformation directed towards meeting basic human needs and enhancing our quality of life economic quality, health care, housing, human rights, environmental protection, and democracy macdonald 2002. Environmental justice offers a wide ranging analysis of this rapidly evolving field, with compelling examples of the processes involved in producing inequalities and the challenges faced in advancing the interests of the disadvantaged. D abstract t he constitution of the federal republic of nigeria includes in its chapter two on fundamental objectives and directives principles of state policy provisions on the protection of the environment. Environmental policy and its enforcement in nigeria.
Addressing environmental justice concerns in developing. Solution to these problems require going beyond the strategies and objectives of fepa. Frameworks to advance environmental justice in developing countries. Environmental and social justice movement in nigeria came to the fore when the ogoni people. Mining in nigeria, uganda and ghana peter eddie aldinger abstract in recent years multinational enterprises mnes have shown a renewed interest in the mineral resources of subsaharan africa, providing governments. Essentially, the paper finds that environmental litigations in nigeria are bedeviled by legal technicalities such that victims of environmental pollution and degradation are ultimately denied access to justice.
Practice% 20generic%20themetriplewinsforsustainabledevelopmentweb. Environmental law includes both the regulation of pollutants as well as natural resource conservation and allocation. Solid waste management in nigeria bioenergy consult. The paper examines the impact of the nature and character of the nigerian state and its environmental policy on the achievement of sustainable development in nigeria. For us to arrive at all these, there is a big need to start behaving in a way that will stop climate change, further environmental pollution and reduce inequalities, as all these threatens to change every progress already made in human and. Environmental pollution and sustainable development in nigeria abah emmanuel ogbonna. It examines how the term is used in both selfdescribed environmental justice movements and in theories of environmental and ecological justice. Under colonial and apartheid governments, thousands of black south africans were forcibly removed from their ancestral lands to make way for game parks, and billions. Environmental justice is the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies. In addition to this, the paper enumerates the causes and consequences of environmental challenges in nigeria. The study revealed that to effectively protect the. The environmental justice movement was born at the nexus of the civil rights and environmental movements, and has grown in power and influence since then. The region has gone through different phases of peaceful and violent struggles as the indigenes of the region aim to achieve environmental justice.
It touches on energy, agriculture, real estate, and land use, and has expanded to include international environmental governance, international trade, environmental justice, sustainable growth. Department of environmental affairs, 2014, environmental impact assessment and management strategy for south africa draft. Access to environmental justice in nigeria friends of the earth. Section 33 and 34 guarantee right to land and human dignity and it is said to associate with the necessity for safe and healthy environment. Following the introduction, the article proceeds in four major components.
Pdf on apr 12, 2019, k g kingston and others published current issues in environmental justice in the nigerian society. At this point, most americans have heard of the avoidable and abject failure of government on the local, state and federal level. Nigeria had, of course, become an archetypal oil nation. Solid waste management is the most pressing environmental challenge faced by urban and rural areas of nigeria. Addressing environmental justice concerns in developing countries. An antithesis to environmental justice nigerias land use act, promulgated in 1978, is perhaps the most controversial legislation in the country. This paper examines judicial attitude to environmental litigation and access to environmental justice in nigeria. Judicial attitude to environmental litigation and access.160 683 684 993 158 768 1094 1033 897 1490 441 1297 169 1434 1175 335 1264 1046 800 1200 759 900 1012 783 500 731 815 442 667 634 312 703 1180 1129 1480 736 981 332 1474 926 729 169 661 399 609